超过2.3 million Americans currently receive Social Security spousal benefits. The average benefit is almost $800 per month, and some spouses receive significantly more.1 These valuable benefits can make a big difference in funding retirement for a married couple and might result in higher total benefits, 即使夫妻双方都有自己的工作记录.
配偶福利可能令人困惑, and it’s important to fully understand 你的 eligibility and options. 为清晰起见, these guidelines are presented from the point of view of the individual filing for spousal benefits.
领取配偶福利, you generally must be age 62 or older and married for at least one year to an eligible worker who is receiving or has filed for Social Security benefits. The maximum spousal benefit is equal to 50% of 你的 spouse’s primary insurance amount (PIA), the amount he or she would receive at full retirement age. 如果你之前选择接受配偶福利 你的 full retirement age, you will receive a permanently reduced benefit (see chart). There are special rules for divorced spouses and spouses caring for a dependent child, 如下面所讨论的.
If 你的 spouse claims benefits before reaching full retirement age, his or her worker benefit would be permanently reduced, but 你的 spousal benefit would still be based on 你的 spouse’s primary insurance amount.
Worker benefits and spousal benefits are based on full retirement age (FRA) — 66 (birth years 1943 to 1954), 66岁2个月到66岁10个月(1955 - 1959), 67年(1960年及以后). 这张图表是基于森林资源评估67.
Spousal benefit as a percentage of worker’s primary insurance amount
Percentages are adjusted incrementally for other FRAs or filing ages. 如果你的生日是这个月的第一天, the Social Security Administration calculates 你的 benefit as if you were born in the previous month.
在一般情况下, if you are eligible 为了配偶福利 and a benefit based on 你的 own work record, the Social Security Administration will pay you whichever amount is higher. If you are initially eligible only for 你的 own worker benefit and later become eligible for a higher spousal benefit (after 你的 spouse files for worker benefits), you will receive an additional amount equal to the difference between the spousal benefit and 你的 own PIA. 这有时被称为 配偶增加.
If you filed for 你的 worker benefit before you reached full retirement age, 你的 combined benefit may be lower than 你的 spousal benefit would have been if you had waited for 你的 spouse to file. You cannot switch from a spousal benefit to a higher worker benefit if you were born after January 1, 1954.
如果你出生在1月1日或之前, 1954, 而且还没有要求自己的工人福利, 你有资格申请一份 限制应用程序 为了配偶福利. This allows you to receive a spousal benefit while earning delayed retirement credits on 你的 own work record, which could increase 你的 worker benefit by 8% for each year you delay claiming, 70岁以下. You can claim 你的 own worker benefit at any time after you file the 限制应用程序.
This strategy may result in higher total lifetime benefits for you and 你的 spouse. 只要你满足所有的要求, you can file a 限制应用程序 even if 你的 spouse filed before full retirement age and/or was born after January 1, 1954.
You may be able to collect benefits based on a former spouse’s work history if you were married for at least 10 years and are currently unmarried. This won’t affect the benefits that 你的 former spouse receives, even if he or she has remarried.
Eligibility for spousal benefits is triggered when 你的 former spouse claims benefits or, 如果你已经离婚至少两年, when 你的 former spouse becomes eligible for benefits, 不管他或她是否认领了它们. 如果你的前配偶暂停福利, you can still receive spousal benefits during the suspension. (对于已婚夫妇来说，情况并非如此.)
和定期的配偶福利一样, the maximum benefit for a divorced spouse is 50% of the former spouse’s PIA, and the spousal benefit is permanently reduced if you file before 你的 own full retirement age. All other provisions that apply to married spouses also apply to eligible divorced spouses.
If you’re caring for a child under age 16 who is receiving benefits based on 你的 spouse’s work record, you may be eligible 为了配偶福利 regardless of 你的 age. Your spousal benefit will end when the child turns 16 unless you are old enough to receive benefits based on 你的 age. You can apply 为了配偶福利 again when you reach age 62 or later.
和工人福利一样, spousal benefits may be reduced by the retirement earnings test if you work before reaching full retirement age and earn more than certain annual limits. A spousal benefit might also be reduced if you are receiving a pension from work not covered by Social Security, 例如在政府任职.
有关配偶福利的更多信息，请参阅 ssa.gov /好处/退休/计划/ applying7.html.