传统的养老金, 哪些承诺退休后终身收入支付, 在私营部门变得不那么普遍了吗, with only about 10% of workers currently participating in a traditional pension plan. 然而, 联邦政府仍广泛发放养老金, 状态, 以及地方政府的就业, and 61% of workers expect a pension to be a major or minor source of retirement income.1
About half of pension plan participants can choose to take their money in a lump sum when they retire.2 除了, companies may offer pension buyouts to vested former employees who are working elsewhere, 甚至是那些已经领取养老金的退休人员.
通过缩减养老金计划的规模, 公司可以降低相关的风险和成本, and limit the impact of future retirement obligations on current financial performance. 然而, what’s good for a corporation’s bottom line may or may not be in the best interests of plan participants and their families.
For most workers, there are clear mathematical and psychological advantages to keeping the pension. 然而, a lump sum could provide financial flexibility that may benefit some families. 大额支票的前景可能很诱人, but cashing out a pension could have costly repercussions for your retirement. One study found that one out of five people who took a lump sum depleted the money within five and a half years, 另有35%的人担心这笔钱会用完.3
考虑到风险, it’s important to have a long-term perspective and consider the following factors when a sizable lump-sum offer is on the table.
要约条款. The amount of a lump sum is based on the discounted present value of an employee’s future pension, set by an IRS formula based on current bond interest rates and average life expectancies. Keep in mind that a pension’s lifetime income may be more valuable for women than for men because women tend to live longer, 但在计算总金额时不考虑性别. 除了, companies may not include the value of subsidies for early retirement or spousal benefits in their buyout offers, the latter of which could be a major disadvantage for married couples.
税收和可能的处罚. Pension payments (monthly or lump sum) are taxed in the year in which they are received. Cashing out a pension before age 59½ may trigger a 10% federal income tax penalty, unless the lump sum is rolled into an IRA or to an employer-sponsored retirement plan (if allowed), which postpones taxes until withdrawals are taken later in retirement. IRA and employer plan distributions are also taxed as ordinary income, and withdrawals taken prior to age 59½ are subject to the 10% federal income tax penalty, 但有一些例外. Annual minimum distributions are required starting at age 72 (70½ if born before July 1, 1949).
金融资源. A lump sum might be helpful for someone with little cash in the bank for emergencies or with debts to pay off. Those who are able to live comfortably on other sources of retirement income might also benefit from a lump sum.
More than 34 million people were covered by PBGC-insured single-employer or multi-employer pension plans in 2020. 然而, the proportion of active participants covered in their current job has declined dramatically since 1980, while the percentages of retirees and participants who are separated from the employer but vested in the pension have risen.
Source: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC), 2020 (most recent data available)
风险承受能力. A lump-sum payout transfers the risk from the pension plan sponsor to the participant. Individuals who opt for a lump sum must then manage that money and determine for themselves how much risk to take in the financial markets. Often the amount is not enough to replace the pension income given up, unless the investor can tolerate exposure to stock market risk and is able to achieve equivalent returns over time.
健康状况. A lump-sum payment might make sense for a participant with potentially life-threatening medical issues, because pension payments end when the plan participant (or a surviving spouse) dies. Money held in an IRA could be withdrawn and spent as needed on health-related costs and/or custodial care. 任何被保留的IRA基金都可以传给继承人.
养老金的前景. A pension plan’s “funded status” is a measure of its assets and liabilities that must be reported annually; a plan funded at 80% or less may be struggling. Most pensions are backstopped by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC), but retirees could lose a portion of the “promised” benefits if their plan fails. For single-employer plans, which are most common, the PBGC annual maximum is $69,750. 然而, 对于多雇主计划(在雇主和工会之间创建), 保修费要低得多，只有12美元,870.4
一切pg电子都有风险, 包括可能的本金损失, and there is no guarantee that any pg电子 strategy will be successful. Investments seeking to achieve higher rates of return also involve a higher degree of risk.